Adrian Empey is an independent scholar. A graduate of Dublin University, he studied under the late Professor A.J. Ottway-Ruthven, and was awarded a Ph.D. in 1971 for his study of the Butler Lordship in the middle ages. He retired in 2008, when he was principal of the Church of Ireland Theological College. He has published widely in journals and in books of collected essays, primarily on themes relating to Anglo-Norman settlement and the origins and development of the parochial system. His most recent publication was Gowran, Co. Kilkenny, 1190-1610: custom and conflict in a baronial town (Four Courts Press, 2015).